Wednesday, May 22, 2024


AN UNDERSTANDING OF 5G INFRASTRUCTURE – NEW TECHNICAL TRENDS. The fifth generation of broadband cellular networks, or 5G, is what mobile phone companies started rolling out globally in 2019. It is the replacement for the 4G networks, which are currently in use to connect the majority of smartphones. In addition to a much higher connection density of devices per km2, 5G offers faster download speeds and decreased latency times (time delays required to transmit data from the source to the destination). The development of many current and new technologies will speed up as a result of this improved performance. Many people find it confusing that broadband cellular networks have gone from 3G to 4G and now 5G, and they need to be made aware of the rationale behind these changes. In order to clear up some of this confusion, this EUC issue will go over the various ways that modern cellular broadband networks and devices are crucial to almost all commercial and industrial businesses, as well as to many facets of our daily lives.

5G infrastructure: what is it?

The fifth generation (5G) technology standard, which is currently the talk of the town, is the replacement for the fourth generation (4G) networks that connect the majority of modern smartphones to the internet. Over 1.1 billion people are expected to be using 5G networks globally by 2025, according to the GSM Association (Global System for Mobile Communications). Five-generation (5G) networks, like their predecessors, are cellular networks with discrete service areas called cells. Via a local antenna located within the cell area, all 5G wireless devices within the cell are linked via radio waves to the internet and phone network.

Infrastructure for both standalone and non-standalone 5G networks

While non-standalone infrastructure (NSA) makes use of some new technologies, such as 5G New Radio (NR), it also depends on the current 4G LTE infrastructure. The NSA architecture integrates the 5G RAN and 5G NR interface with the current LTE infrastructure and core network in accordance with 3GPP standards. According to the 5G standard, this implies that even though only LTE services are supported, the network can take advantage of 5G NR’s lower latency. According to Grand View Research, Inc., non-standalone (NSA) network architecture has dominated the market with a revenue share of over 92.9% in 2020. This is a result of the non-standalone network’s early global deployment, which is typically done in conjunction with the current LTE infrastructure. A number of significant service providers, such as China Mobile, Verizon, and AT&T, have implemented 5G NSA network models for basic usage. A 5G network with its cloud-native network core that connects to the NR is known as a standalone infrastructure. It operates independently of LTE networks. After passing through an NSA infrastructure, network carriers are anticipated to use standalone infrastructures. Carriers can provide 5G-like experiences while developing the necessary physical infrastructure for a 5G network by employing an NSA approach. The 3GPP Release 15 states that the 5G core network, the RAN (which consists of the NR), and user equipment make up the standalone deployment option. A service-based 5G architecture framework with virtualized network functions underpins the 5G core network. AN UNDERSTANDING OF 5G INFRASTRUCTURE – NEW TECHNICAL TRENDS.


Infrastructure for 5G network towers

Traditional cell towers that cover large areas are called macrocells. Network operations that normally run on hardware are virtualized and run as software in a 5G network. The majority of carriers will continue to use 4G LTE radio access networks (RANs), which have been upgraded with numerous new antennas until 5G networks realize their full potential and become self-sufficient. Providing better services while the new physical infrastructure is being constructed enables carriers to make the switch from 4G to 5G smoothly.

5G hardware for infrastructure

The Radio Access Network (RAN) is a core network that provides a wide range of services to users connected by the access network, a backhaul that links the edge and backbone networks, and a transport that links a 5G RAN to the core network comprise the main components of 5G infrastructure hardware. The Microwave antennas or fiber optics make up the backhaul and transport network.

RAN led the 5G infrastructure market in 2020, accounting for 47.6% of the hardware market, according to Grand View Research, Inc. This has contributed to the widespread deployment of 5G RAN, which now has numerous base stations for small and macrocells spread throughout the world.

In an effort to lower overall infrastructure costs and network complexity, network service providers are increasingly adopting virtual and centralized RAN. Additionally, it is anticipated that a significant portion of the segment’s growth from 2021 to 2028 will come from the application of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) technology to enhance the virtual RANs’ operational effectiveness.

Classifications of frequency bands

When the frequency transmitted by cell phone towers is lower than 6 GHz, sub-6 GHz bands are utilized. One potential early deployment site for 5G networks worldwide is the sub-6GHz spectrum. It can support higher bandwidth than LTE frequency bands and makes use of an underutilized portion of the spectrum below the 6GHz range. In 2020, sub-6GHz held a 91+ market share for 5G infrastructure. AN UNDERSTANDING OF 5G INFRASTRUCTURE – NEW TECHNICAL TRENDS. High band frequencies known as mmWave offer improved bandwidth capacity and extremely low latency. These spectrum bands would be most useful in applications where ultra-reliable connectivity is required, particularly in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) connectivity and remote patient surgeries.


Covid-19 postpones going into effect.

The Covid-19 pandemic undoubtedly caused a delay in the deployment of 5G infrastructure. Testing and trials necessary to confirm the processing performance and stability of 5G standalone networks were disrupted by the pandemic. Furthermore, the pandemic has led to a decrease in telecom equipment exports for 5G New Radio Technology (NR) to the international market from the US and China, among other nations.

Comeback and creativity:

Despite the pandemic, it is anticipated that over the next seven years, the deployment of 5G infrastructure will increase due to the ongoing focus on enhancing communications for energy monitoring and management, as well as the necessity to obtain greater control over the energy generation and distribution network. According to numerous published industry reports, the size of the global market for 5G infrastructure was estimated to be close to USD 3 billion in 2020. From 2021 to 2028, the market is predicted to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of between 49.8% and 71.2%.

Service providers all around the world now have access to a new source of income thanks to the quickly expanding industrial digitalization. For years to come, the industrial segment is expected to grow at a rapid pace due to the growing need for industrial applications, such as wireless cameras, automated guided vehicles (AGVs), collaborative/cloud robots, and others, to communicate continuously. The need for ultra-reliable, high-frequency, low-latency connectivity increases when it comes to the ability to provide uninterrupted connectivity between machines within manufacturing processes. AN UNDERSTANDING OF 5G INFRASTRUCTURE – NEW TECHNICAL TRENDS. Government and public safety facilities are increasingly implementing 5G infrastructures due to the established necessity of prompt communication with first responders during emergencies. It is anticipated that demand for next-generation, high-speed networks will soar in the wake of the ongoing pandemic. Because more applications for energy distribution and generation require high-speed internet connectivity, the energy sector is expected to grow significantly. The need for better connectivity for ships, containers, and other vessels in order to facilitate effective remote monitoring is also anticipated to drive the uptake of 5G technology and associated infrastructure in the logistics and transportation industry. The significance of ideas like remote diagnosis, treatment, and surgery for patients is being emphasized by the healthcare sector. This means that during remote patient surgeries, data delivery and connectivity must be dependable and consistent. In the upcoming years, the healthcare sector will see market growth driven by 5G next-generation technology and associated infrastructure.


supplying consumers, enterprises, and industries with high-bandwidth services

One significant improvement and benefit of the new 5G networks is their increased bandwidth, which allows for faster download speeds, eventually reaching 10 gigabits per second (Gbit/s). The 5G networks will compete with current ISPs like cable Internet by offering general internet service for laptops and desktop computers due to their increased bandwidth. Furthermore, the market will grow as a result of the increasing need for improved bandwidth connectivity with low latency for numerous mission-critical applications, including vehicle-to-everything (V2X), precision manufacturing, medical diagnostics and surgery, drone connectivity, and many other applications. Better user experiences will be offered by 5G technology, which will include smooth video calling, ultra-high definition (UHD) video, virtual reality (VR), and augmented reality (AR) for gaming. The Internet of Things (IoT) will be able to launch new applications and enhance machine-to-machine connectivity thanks to 5G. The new networks require 5 G-enabled wireless devices, which are incompatible with 4G cell phones. Your communication service providers currently offer a range of 5G-enabled smartphones. Major global communication service providers are investing heavily in order to obtain low- and mid-band frequencies and provide high-bandwidth services to consumers, enterprises, and sectors. The governments of several major countries, including the US, China, Japan, and South Korea, have recently made sub-6 GHz frequencies available for high-speed internet service in their respective countries.

Controls for electrical machines for more than 40 years:

This issue of EVERYTHING UNDER CONTROL is hopefully helpful to you and will help to dispel some of the mystery surrounding 5G broadband cellular technology. Understanding how the 5G network benefits industrial and commercial businesses of all kinds and how it will enhance many facets of our daily lives is vital as we all proceed in the modern business world. In upcoming issues, we will provide details on the most recent developments and trends for a broad range of industries whose machine controls heavily rely on c3controls products. AN UNDERSTANDING OF 5G INFRASTRUCTURE – NEW TECHNICAL TRENDS.

Higher Data Rates:

5G aims to provide significantly higher data rates compared to its predecessor, 4G LTE. This is achieved through the use of advanced modulation techniques, wider bandwidths, and more efficient encoding schemes.

Low Latency:

One of the most crucial aspects of 5G is its low latency, aiming for response times as low as one millisecond. This is crucial for applications like autonomous vehicles, augmented reality, and real-time gaming.

Millimeter Wave Spectrum:

5G utilizes higher frequency bands, including millimeter waves, to enable faster data rates. However, these high-frequency signals have shorter ranges and are more susceptible to obstacles, requiring the deployment of small cells and advanced beamforming techniques.

Massive MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output):

Massive MIMO involves the use of a large number of antennas at both the transmitter and receiver, enabling simultaneous communication with multiple devices. This not only boosts data rates but also enhances network capacity and efficiency. AN UNDERSTANDING OF 5G INFRASTRUCTURE – NEW TECHNICAL TRENDS.

Network Slicing:

Network slicing allows the creation of virtualized, customized networks tailored to specific applications or user requirements. This enables the coexistence of various services with distinct characteristics (e.g., enhanced Mobile Broadband, Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications, and Massive Machine Type Communications) on the same physical infrastructure.

Edge Computing:

5G networks leverage edge computing to process data closer to the end-users or devices, reducing latency and enhancing real-time processing capabilities. AN UNDERSTANDING OF 5G INFRASTRUCTURE – NEW TECHNICAL TRENDS.  This is crucial for applications requiring rapid response times, such as IoT devices and augmented reality.


Security Enhancements:

With the increased connectivity and the proliferation of IoT devices, 5G incorporates improved security measures. This includes stronger encryption protocols, authentication mechanisms, and network slicing isolation to prevent unauthorized access and protect user data.

Energy Efficiency:

5G infrastructure aims for improved energy efficiency, optimizing power consumption to support the increasing number of connected devices and the growing demand for data. AN UNDERSTANDING OF 5G INFRASTRUCTURE – NEW TECHNICAL TRENDS.

Dynamic Spectrum Sharing:

Dynamic Spectrum Sharing enables the simultaneous use of 4G and 5G technologies on the same frequency band. This facilitates a smoother transition to 5G without the need for a complete overhaul of existing infrastructure.


Open RAN (Radio Access Network):

Open RAN is a shift towards a more open and interoperable radio access network architecture. It allows for greater flexibility, competition, and innovation in the development and deployment of 5G networks.



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